Spread over an area of approximately 1026 sq. km., Palamau Tiger Reserve is located within the civil administrative district of Palamau in the South Chhotanagpur plateau of Bihar. The undulating terrain is set off by sal forests and thickets of bamboo. The circuitous Koel River and its tributaries meander through the park.
Palamau has the distinction of being the forest where the world's first tiger census was conducted by way of pugmarks, in 1934. Large herds of Gaur & Chital are commonly seen. Elephants are present mostly after the monsoon upto the time when the water holes begin to dry up in March. Tiger, Panther, Sloth Bear, Wild Bear, Sambar, Nilgai, Deer are also permanent residents.
Palamau National Park is now a part of one of nine tiger reserves in India, under "Project Tiger". Man-animal conflicts, caused largely by elephants are a major problem and pose Project Tiger with one of its greatest challenges.